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====== Sendmail ====== ===== eine kurze Einführung in Sendmail (FreeBSD 4.7) ===== * [[http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/de/handbook/sendmail.html|deutsche Sendmail-Anleitung]] * [[http://www.puresimplicity.net/~hemi/freebsd/sendmail.html|Sendmail-Anleitung mit TLSMTA]] * [[http://www.mail-archive.com/freebsd-questions@freebsd.org/msg27829.html|Sendmail-Anleitung mit Cyrus IMAP4]] * [[http://www.sendmail.org/virtual-hosting.html|Virtual Hosting with Sendmail]] ==== Allgemeine Steuerung von Sendmail ==== # cd /etc/mail # in das Verzeichnis wechseln # make # alle Konfig-Dateien und Datenbanken neu schreiben # make stop # Sendmail stopen # make start # Sendmail starten # make restart # Sendmail neu starten # ls -l /var/mail/ # User-spezifische Dateien # ls -l /var/log/maillog # Mail-Logdatei # ls -l /var/log/messages # System-Logdatei mit Sendmailmeldungen === FreeBSD === # vi /etc/rc.conf Sendmail ist komplett abgeschaltet: sendmail_enable="NONE" Damit E-Mails nur von "localhost" angenommen werden koennen: sendmail_enable="NO" Damit E-Mails auch von anderen Rechnern angenommen werden koennen: sendmail_enable="YES" === Linux === Sendmail zum empfangen von E-Mails konfigurieren # vi /etc/mail/sendmail.mc # ALT # vi /etc/mail/freebsd.mc # NEU Sendmail lauscht nur auf "localhost": DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl oder Sendmail lauscht nur auf "192.168.0.1": DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Addr=192.168.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl oder Sendmail lauscht auf "localhost" und "192.168.0.1": DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Addr=192.168.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl oder Sendmail lauscht auf allen IP-Adressen: DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp, Name=MTA')dnl Die Datei "/etc/mail/freebsd.mc" wird nach dem ersten 'make' in `hostname`.mc (z.B.: /etc/mail/mail.mydomain.de.mc) umbenannt, weitere Aenderungen sollten dann in der Datei vorgenommen werden. Diese "Addr"-Option wird von FreeBSD ignoriert, diese Einstellung wird mit "YES/NO/NONE" in der "/etc/rc.conf" vorgenommen! === Konfiguration Beginn === um sich die Statusmeldungen des Systems zuschicken zu lassen # vi /etc/mail/aliases [adressierter Empfänger] [ausgehende Adresse oder lokale User] sshd: meine@mailadresse.de root: admin@mailadresse.de,sysop@mailadresse.de webmaster: fritz den neuen Eintrag aktivieren # newaliases auf diese Domains soll Sendmail reagieren (MX'er) # vi /etc/mail/sendmail.cw # ALT # vi /etc/mail/local-host-names # NEU maildomain.de neue Konfiguration aktivieren # cd /etc/mail ; make hier werden die Zugriffe auf Weiterleitungen erlaubt oder verboten # vi /etc/mail/access cyberspammer.com 550 We don't accept mail from spammers FREE.STEALTH.MAILER@ 550 We don't accept mail from spammers another.source.of.spam REJECT okay.cyberspammer.com OK 127.0.0.1 RELAY 192.168.9.10 RELAY 192.168.0 RELAY neue Konfiguration aktivieren # cd /etc/mail ; make === OPTIONAL === hier werden Weiterleitungen zum mapen von Adressen eingetragen (Die Quell-Domainen in dieser Datei müssen auch in der "/etc/mail/local-host-names" bekannt gemacht werden!) # vi /etc/mail/virtusertable [eingehende Adresse] [ausgehende Adresse oder lokale User] @maildomain.de mailuser webmaster@maildomain.de adelheid info@maildomain.de news@new.de @mail.de mein@postfach.de neue Konfiguration aktivieren # cd /etc/mail ; make Familien-Mailinglisten können hier z.B. wie folgt eingerichtet werden: (Die User "faeterlicherseits", "muetterlicherseits", "familie" brauchen im System, bei FreeBSD, nicht bekannt sein.) # vi /etc/mail/virtusertable faeterlicherseits@lokaldomain.de faeterlicherseits muetterlicherseits@lokaldomain.de muetterlicherseits familie@lokaldomain.de familie # vi /etc/mail/aliases faeterlicherseits: pa-oma@gmx.de,pa-opa@gmx.de,pa-tante@gmx.de,pa-onkel@gmx.de muetterlicherseits: ma-oma@gmx.de,ma-opa@gmx.de,ma-tante@gmx.de,ma-onkel@gmx.de familie: faeterlicherseits,muetterlicherseits,mama@gmx.de,papa@gmx.de # vi /etc/mail/local-host-names lokaldomain.de neue Konfiguration aktivieren # newaliases # cd /etc/mail && make Jetzt kann man mit nur einer E-Mail-Adresse an die ganze Familie schreiben und vergisst keinen: # echo "Test" | mail -s TEST familie@lokaldomain.de === Konfiguration Ende === Jetzt einen MUA (z.B.: "qpopper" für den inetd oder "akpop3d" als Daemon) aus den Ports installieren, Anleitungen sind auch hier. (damit auf Port 110/pop3 gelauscht werden kann) ==== SENDMAIL INSTALLATION AND OPERATION GUIDE ==== Das grosse Handbuch fuer die aktuell installierte Sendmail-Version in FreeBSD 5.2.1-RC kann wie folgt generiert werden. # cd /usr/src/contrib/sendmail/doc/op/ # make op.ps op.txt "op.ps" ist die PostScript-Version, die mit # ps2pdf op.ps op.pdf in eine PDF-Version umgewandelt werden kann. "op.txt" ist die plain Textdatei. ===== Absende-Adr. in Sendmail aendern (RedHat-Linux) ===== * Quelle: [[http://www.geocrawler.com/archives/3/80/1999/7/0/2491972/]] ==== Masquerade the Envelope with Sendmail ==== * [[http://www.moongroup.com/sendmail-offline.html]] * [[http://moongroup.com]] We`re assuming a complete install of sendmail (this works with versions from 8.8.7 through 8.9.3). as root: # cd /usr/lib/sendmail-cf/cf/ **Note:** if you don`t have this directory and it doesn`t show up in an alternate path after you`ve searched for it then our assumptions about a full install are incorrect and you have to get everything installed prior to proceding! This would mean the sendmail-cf rpm as well as the sendmail rpm. I also recommend you install sendmail-doc. # cp myconfig.mc /usr/lib/sendmail-cf/cf/myconfig.mc.bakup # vi myconfig.mc and insert the following text: # /usr/lib/sendmail-cf/cf/redhat.mc plus the masquerade options divert(-1)dnl include(`../m4/cf.m4`)dnl define(`confDEF_USER_ID`,``8:12``)dnl define(`SMART_HOST`, `your.isps.mta`)dnl #added OSTYPE(`linux`)dnl undefine(`UUCP_RELAY`)dnl undefine(`BITNET_RELAY`)dnl FEATURE(redirect)dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(use_cw_file)dnl FEATURE(local_procmail)dnl FEATURE(nouucp)dnl MAILER(procmail)dnl MAILER(smtp)dnl MASQUERADE_AS(yourdomain.dom)dnl #added - use your domain name here! FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl #added FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl #added HACK(check_mail3,`hash -a@JUNK /etc/mail/deny`)dnl HACK(use_ip,`/etc/mail/ip_allow`)dnl HACK(use_names,`/etc/mail/name_allow`)dnl HACK(use_relayto,`/etc/mail/relay_allow`)dnl HACK(check_rcpt4)dnl HACK(check_relay3)dnl If you`re using Red Hat all of this is in the original redhat.mc with a couple of lines added for folks in your situation.... The next issue in this process is that we have to have a legitimate (must have a DNS record) relay host to make this work so be sure and use your ISP`s MTA as a "smart" relay host. This would be inserted in place of "your.isps.mta" in the line which begins: define(`SMART_HOST`... so if your ISP`s SMTP host was called "mail.yourisp.net" then your line would like this: define(`SMART_HOST`, `mail.yourisp.net`) Now that we`ve created our myconfig.mc file we`ve got to create a new sendmail.cf... but how do we do that? # mv /etc/sendmail.cf /etc/sendmail.cf.bakup (we`re still in the same directory with our new .mc file) # m4 ../m4/cf.m4 myconfig.mc > nuconfig.cf **Note:** if there are any error messages here stop and let us know immediately. # cp nuconfig.cf /etc/sendmail.cf Now we cd to /etc and edit the new sendmail.cf to ensure that our ISP`s MTA is still selected as our relay host. The line we`re looking for is: "Smart" relay host (may be null) DSmail.yourisp.net (where mail.yourisp.net would be the FQDN of your ISP`s MTA machine) Next we want to issue the command # /etc/rc.d/init.d/sendmail restart double check the sendmail.cw and make sure your own domain is listed (i.e. yourdomain.dom) and we`re done! Additional reading on this topic: Configuring sendmail for offline use by Simone Govoni ===== Eine sendmail.mc von RedHat 8.0 ===== # vi /etc/mail/sendmail.mc divert(-1)dnl dnl # dnl # This is the sendmail macro config file for m4. If you make changes to dnl # /etc/mail/sendmail.mc, you will need to regenerate the dnl # /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file by confirming that the sendmail-cf package is dnl # installed and then performing a dnl # dnl # make -C /etc/mail dnl # include(`/usr/share/sendmail-cf/m4/cf.m4')dnl VERSIONID(`setup for Red Hat Linux')dnl OSTYPE(`linux')dnl dnl # dnl # Uncomment and edit the following line if your outgoing mail needs to dnl # be sent out through an external mail server: dnl # dnl define(`SMART_HOST',`smtp.your.provider') dnl # define(`confDEF_USER_ID',``8:12'')dnl define(`confTRUSTED_USER', `smmsp')dnl dnl define(`confAUTO_REBUILD')dnl define(`confTO_CONNECT', `1m')dnl define(`confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST',true)dnl define(`confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES',true)dnl define(`PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH',`/usr/bin/procmail')dnl define(`ALIAS_FILE', `/etc/aliases')dnl dnl define(`STATUS_FILE', `/etc/mail/statistics')dnl define(`UUCP_MAILER_MAX', `2000000')dnl define(`confUSERDB_SPEC', `/etc/mail/userdb.db')dnl define(`confPRIVACY_FLAGS', `authwarnings,novrfy,noexpn,restrictqrun')dnl define(`confAUTH_OPTIONS', `A')dnl dnl # dnl # The following allows relaying if the user authenticates, and disallows dnl # plaintext authentication (PLAIN/LOGIN) on non-TLS links dnl # dnl define(`confAUTH_OPTIONS', `A p')dnl dnl # dnl # PLAIN is the preferred plaintext authentication method and used by dnl # Mozilla Mail and Evolution, though Outlook Express and other MUAs do dnl # use LOGIN. Other mechanisms should be used if the connection is not dnl # guaranteed secure. dnl # dnl TRUST_AUTH_MECH(`EXTERNAL DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl define(`confAUTH_MECHANISMS', `EXTERNAL GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl dnl # dnl # Rudimentary information on creating certificates for sendmail TLS: dnl # make -C /usr/share/ssl/certs usage dnl # dnl define(`confCACERT_PATH',`/usr/share/ssl/certs') dnl define(`confCACERT',`/usr/share/ssl/certs/ca-bundle.crt') dnl define(`confSERVER_CERT',`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.pem') dnl define(`confSERVER_KEY',`/usr/share/ssl/certs/sendmail.pem') dnl # dnl # This allows sendmail to use a keyfile that is shared with OpenLDAP's dnl # slapd, which requires the file to be readble by group ldap dnl # dnl define(`confDONT_BLAME_SENDMAIL',`groupreadablekeyfile')dnl dnl # dnl define(`confTO_QUEUEWARN', `4h')dnl dnl define(`confTO_QUEUERETURN', `5d')dnl dnl define(`confQUEUE_LA', `12')dnl dnl define(`confREFUSE_LA', `18')dnl define(`confTO_IDENT', `0')dnl dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl FEATURE(`no_default_msa',`dnl')dnl FEATURE(`smrsh',`/usr/sbin/smrsh')dnl FEATURE(`mailertable',`hash -o /etc/mail/mailertable.db')dnl FEATURE(`virtusertable',`hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable.db')dnl FEATURE(redirect)dnl FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl FEATURE(use_cw_file)dnl FEATURE(use_ct_file)dnl dnl # dnl # The -t option will retry delivery if e.g. the user runs over his quota. dnl # FEATURE(local_procmail,`',`procmail -t -Y -a $h -d $u')dnl FEATURE(`access_db',`hash -T<TMPF> -o /etc/mail/access.db')dnl FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl dnl # dnl # The following causes sendmail to only listen on the IPv4 loopback address dnl # 127.0.0.1 and not on any other network devices. Remove the loopback dnl # address restriction to accept email from the internet or intranet. dnl # DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp,Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl dnl # dnl # The following causes sendmail to additionally listen to port 587 for dnl # mail from MUAs that authenticate. Roaming users who can't reach their dnl # preferred sendmail daemon due to port 25 being blocked or redirected find dnl # this useful. dnl # dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=submission, Name=MSA, M=Ea')dnl dnl # dnl # The following causes sendmail to additionally listen to port 465, but dnl # starting immediately in TLS mode upon connecting. Port 25 or 587 followed dnl # by STARTTLS is preferred, but roaming clients using Outlook Express can't dnl # do STARTTLS on ports other than 25. Mozilla Mail can ONLY use STARTTLS dnl # and doesn't support the deprecated smtps; Evolution <1.1.1 uses smtps dnl # when SSL is enabled-- STARTTLS support is available in version 1.1.1. dnl # dnl # For this to work your OpenSSL certificates must be configured. dnl # dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtps, Name=TLSMTA, M=s')dnl dnl # dnl # The following causes sendmail to additionally listen on the IPv6 loopback dnl # device. Remove the loopback address restriction listen to the network. dnl # dnl # NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires dnl # a kernel patch dnl # dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`port=smtp,Addr=::1, Name=MTA-v6, Family=inet6')dnl dnl # dnl # We strongly recommend not accepting unresolvable domains if you want to dnl # protect yourself from spam. However, the laptop and users on computers dnl # that do not have 24x7 DNS do need this. dnl # FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl dnl # dnl FEATURE(`relay_based_on_MX')dnl dnl # dnl # Also accept email sent to "localhost.localdomain" as local email. dnl # LOCAL_DOMAIN(`localhost.localdomain')dnl dnl # dnl # The following example makes mail from this host and any additional dnl # specified domains appear to be sent from mydomain.com dnl # dnl MASQUERADE_AS(`mydomain.com')dnl dnl # dnl # masquerade not just the headers, but the envelope as well dnl # dnl FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl dnl # dnl # masquerade not just @mydomainalias.com, but @*.mydomainalias.com as well dnl # dnl FEATURE(masquerade_entire_domain)dnl dnl # dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(localhost)dnl dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(localhost.localdomain)dnl dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(mydomainalias.com)dnl dnl MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(mydomain.lan)dnl MAILER(smtp)dnl MAILER(procmail)dnl um einen SMTP-Server aufzusetzen muss nur die folgende Zeile in eine entsprechende *.mc-Datei eingetragen werden: dnl # DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp,Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')dnl So wird unter RedHat aus der "sendmail.mc" eine "sendmail.cf" generiert: # m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/sendmail.cf && service sendmail restart

sendmail.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2016/04/13 00:49 (Externe Bearbeitung)